After a federal election, the party with the most House of Representatives members (or the one that can create a majority in partnership with other parties) normally becomes the Australian Government, and the party leader becomes Prime Minister. In turn, the party (or coalition of parties) with the second most members becomes the Opposition and is led by the Leader of the Opposition.
Members of the House of Representatives or Senators will be chosen by the Prime Minister to serve as ministers in the new administration. The Governor-General must approve the Prime Minister’s and ministers’ appointments. Every government minister is assigned a portfolio, which is the specific area of government for which they are accountable, such as the economics, education, or employment. The ministers with the most important ministries are appointed to the Cabinet, which is where the government’s most critical decisions are made.